In cases where teeth and/or surrounding tissues have suffered a loss of substance for a number of reasons (caries, periodontal diseases, accident, etc.) and in tooth loss cases or for aesthetic reasons without loss of substance, personalized restorations are called “prosthetics”.
In tooth loss cases, the chewing function, aesthetic appearance and psychology are negatively affected. Therefore, the completion of missing teeth by various methods increases the chewing efficiency, as well as eliminating the negative situations caused by aesthetic problems.
It is an artificial screw, which is biocompatible with the tissue that supports as the root of the missing tooth by placing it in the jawbone to replace the missing teeth. Fixed or movable prostheses are placed on these screws, which are inserted into the jawbone by surgical operation.
Prostheses are generally evaluated in two separate groups:
In the construction of fixed prostheses following materials are used:
Metal-supported ceramics: It is a frequently used economical restoration which is obtained by baking ceramics on the substructure of an alloy that is the combination of different metals.
Non-metallic ceramics (full ceramics): This type of restoration is obtained by baking a different ceramic on the ceramic substructure or it can be made only from a single layer of ceramic and has a texture and color quite similar to the natural tooth because it does not contain metal. Thanks to today's technology, it is quite robust in restorations obtained from ceramics without substructure support.
In the construction of movable prosthesis, a polymer-based material called acrylic, which imitates both soft tissues (pink in color) and missing teeth, is mostly used. In addition to acrylic, ceramic and composite based materials can also be used in the construction of some implant-supported movable prostheses.
Zirconium is a highly solid white material that is included in the group of full ceramics. When used as a substructure, ceramics of the desired color are processed on it. In some cases, a single-layer version called “monolithic/monoblock zirconium” is used. Its use has become quite widespread today since it does not contain metal substructure, it meets aesthetic expectations and is biocompatible with texture.
Computer-assisted design means computer-assisted manufacturing. After deciding on the type of prosthesis to be made and following the completion of the necessary preparations in the mouth, digital measurements are taken with the help of special optical intraoral cameras instead of the classical measurement process. The design of the prosthesis is completed on virtual models obtained from these digital measurements, and the production of the designed prosthesis is completed on scraping devices or with devices called 3D printers with zero touches from a human. The fact that it eliminates the classical measurement process, and all operations are completed digitally, minimizes the margin of error. In addition, one of the biggest advantages is that the treatments can be completed in one session. Many types of prostheses such as crowns, bridges, inlays, onlays, overlays, laminate veneers, implant prostheses, total prostheses can be produced using CAD/CAM technology.
It is a modern treatment method in which the color and shape problems, disproportions or tooth colorations that can be observed on a person's teeth and gums are planned in accordance with the patient's expectation and needs, and the approximate result can be shown to the patient in advance without any intervention on the teeth. Since planning and designing are performed entirely in a digital environment, this process is called “digital smile design”.
All the prostheses used for the rehabilitation of congenital or acquired deformities (for reasons such as trauma and cancer) in the maxillofacial region are called maxillofacial prostheses. Facial defects are facial deformations that occur in areas such as the eyes, nose, ears, and cheeks, and there may be one or more deformations. In addition to facial defects, there can also be deformities of the jaws.